Ten Facts

The ten times facts can form a basis for the nines and fives.  Additionally, they are critical in multidigit multiplication later on.

There are a couple of tools that are useful for exploring the tens facts, but they really reinforce or explore the pattern of adding a zero when multiplying by 10.

I realized students don’t really know why we add a zero. The process looks something like this:

4 X 10 means 4 groups of 10.

If we look at a place value chart:

We place tens (or groups of ten) in the second column, which makes the number: When we indicate the number of ones we have, we get:


So why do we add a zero? Basically, because we have no units or singles. It’s all groups of ten.

A good visual tool is to use mini-ten frames.  Students can use these to model a ten times fact and count by 10’s. Ten Frames Ten Times Facts
A hundreds board is a more abstract tool, but good for practicing the ten times facts and exploring the patterns.

Hundreds Board

Hundreds Board

Hundreds Board

Mini Ten Frames (Full)


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