Addition Facts

There are 100 addition facts students are expected to know, from 0+0 to 9+9.  These are developed over grades 1 and 2, so full automaticity isn’t expected yet for all the facts in grade 1.  For facts that are well practiced, recall should be expected within 2 to 3 seconds.  However, recent research has shown that real memorization takes years longer than was thought.

Research suggests that sheer memorization is less useful than using an understanding of numbers to help learn the facts.  A variety of strategies are used to support memorization.  These strategies also help with various number relationships in later years.

Most of the strategies rely on derived fact strategies, which have students use a fact or skills they already know to help find the unknown fact.

The menu on the right lead to a variety of strategies.  While the Ontario curriculum does not detail specific strategies for grades 1 and 2, these below seem a suitable split.

Two Apart facts (AKA Doubles +2, Monkey in the Middle, Robin Hood) could be added to grade 2 strategies.


Grade 1 Grade 2
  • One More, Two More
  • Plus Zero
  • Bonds of Ten
  • Doubles
  • Near Doubles
  • + 10
  • Continue with grade 1 strategies to build automaticity (short practice sessions over time)
  • Make 10 (bridge)
  • +8 / +9
  • Two apart facts



Thinking Strategies: Addition

This is a fairly complete resource for teaching the addition facts, and will complement any program.  All major strategies are covered, and student practice sheets are in an engaging format.  Click on the image to see samples from the book.  This book is in every AMDSB Teacher PD library!

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